More Fiber Reduces Breast Cancer Risk

fiber reduces breast cancer

Photo by Matt Buck

Everything has a consequence – especially when it comes to our diet. Sooner or later, the diet we eat now will come back to haunt us – or come back to help our bodies heal.

This is especially true for dietary fiber. Eating more fiber seems like a challenge with today’s fast-food oriented western diet. But according to new research, the challenge is worth it. A large research study has confirmed that increased dietary fiber intake during a woman’s teenage or younger adult years will slice her risk of breast cancer later on – in a major way.

In fact, the evidence on fiber’s ability to help prevent multiple cancers is pervasive. Studies have found links between lower dietary fiber intake and colon cancer, prostate cancer and others.

We’ll leave some of this for another article. For now, let’s take a look at the case between dietary fiber and breast cancer.

Breast cancer staved off by fiber intake

The newest and by far the largest study connecting fiber and breast cancer comes from researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health. The researchers utilized participants that took part in the Nurses’ Health Study II – which included more than 90,000 women available for fiber consumption research.

At the end of the day, 44,263 women participated in the beginning through the end of the study, which followed the women from 1991, and analyzed their dietary habits from their high school years.

The dietary analysis of the women started with their high school years between 1960 and 1980 depending upon the age of each woman. Then following the 1991 food frequency report, each woman updated their current diet every four years until 2007.

The women also were monitored for breast cancer incidence. Every other year the women reported breast cancer diagnoses or the lack thereof. The researchers found this reporting accuracy to be quite high as they sampled medical records.

The study also eliminated other variables known to influence breast cancer, such as smoking, weight, hysterectomy and other factors.

The researchers divided the fiber intake of the women into five levels – called quintiles. The lowest total fiber intake level (the lowest quintile) during early adult years averaged 12 grams of fiber per day. The next level was 15.3, and the highest fiber levels were a little over 26 grams of total fiber per day.

During their teenage years, this ranged from a low average of 16 grams per day to a high average fiber intake per day of 21.5 grams per day in the highest quintile.

The study found that diets higher in fiber during teenage years led to a reduced risk of breast cancer by between 16 and 20 percent.

And for every 10 grams of fiber increase there was a decrease in breast cancer incidence by 14 percent. This, according to lead researcher Dr. Maryam Farvid of Harvard, converts to a 30 percent reduction in breast cancer risk for someone who eats between 25 to 30 grams of total fiber per day.

More fiber during early adulthood also decreases breast cancer risk

For those women in their 20s, it’s not too late to experience the anti-cancer benefits of fiber consumption. The 2016 study also found that for every 10 grams of increased fiber per day there is a 13 percent reduction in breast cancer risk later on. This means that increasing fiber intake from 10 grams of fiber per day to 30 grams per day would decrease the risk of breast cancer later on by more than 25 percent.

This actually wouldn’t be too hard to do. The average American consumes between 10 and 15 grams of total fiber per day according to the National Library of Medicine. Adding some additional grains, fruit and vegetables to ones diet can easily add up to 20 grams of fiber.

How much fiber is recommended per day?

This 25 to 30 grams of total fiber per day is the middle range of the recommended intake of fiber per day, according to the National Library of Medicine. That recommendation is for between 20 and 35 grams of total fiber per day. Natural medicine proponents often hike this to 35 to 45 grams of total fiber – though getting to that point is recommended gradually.

Dr. Farvid provides some practical advice:

“We recommend that parents of young daughters provide plenty of high-fiber foods at home and make sure their children eat enough fruits and vegetables, whole-grain pasta, dark bread or brown rice, legumes and nuts in their diet.”

Not the first study to show link between early diets and breast cancer

Other studies have shown that fiber and other foods eaten during a woman’s teenage and early adult years can affect the risk of breast cancer. A 2010 study from Harvard Medical School followed 29,480 women for ten years that included food questionnaires.

The study found those women who ate the highest levels of fiber during high school had 25 percent lower incidence of the breast cancer marker, proliferative BBD.

Furthermore, women who ate two or more servings of nuts per week during high school a phenomenal 36 percent reduced incidence of the breast cancer marker.

Another study from Harvard Medical School – this one from 2013 – also studied early diets and breast cancer incidence. This study found that those who ate more fiber, vegetable oils, nuts and vitamin E foods had significantly lower risk of breast cancer later on.

This study also found that a greater consumption of animal fats, red meat and alcohol was associated with a greater risk of breast cancer later on.

This large 2016 study from Harvard discussed above also found that increased alcohol consumption was linked with greater breast cancer risk later on.

How does fiber reduce breast cancer risk?

Dietary fibers include fiber that is fermentable by probiotics and non-fermentable fiber –also referred to as insoluble fiber.

Fiber is typically divided into soluble and insoluble fiber categories. This is defined by the fiber’s ability to be dissolve in water. Those fibers that dissolve in water also happen to be fermentable and thus provide food (prebiotics) for our gut’s bacteria.

Foods high in insoluble fiber include grains, seeds and the skins of fruits. These balance bowel movements and our intestinal motility. These plant parts include cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignins. Other insoluble fibers include resistant starch and resistant dextrins.

Foods high in soluble fiber include oats, barley, nuts, fruits, beans and legumes. They contain mucilages, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides among others.

Soluble fibers have been found to absorb and remove cholesterol lipids that are not healthy in the bloodstream. They also feed our gut’s microorganisms. Apparently, this synergistic decrease in bad cholesterol lipids and healthier probiotics decrease circulating estrogen levels. It is believed that this is because increased cholesterol levels increase estrogen levels.

The High Fiber 500 List

To ease your quest to increase your fiber intake, here is the top 500 high-fiber foods according the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database. These are ranked by fiber per measure (the author has no association with any brand mentioned in the list – also note that organic versions of these foods are suggested):

Here is the list in long-hand for those without a Google PDF Viewer:
Source: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference 28 Software v.2.3.7.5
Nutrients: Fiber, total dietary (g)
Food Subset:All Foods
Ordered by:Nutrient Content
Measured by:Household
Report Run at: 02-15-2016T18:29
Description Weight (grams)/Measure/Total Fiber in Grams
Corn bran, crude 76 1.0 cup 60
Hyacinth beans, mature seeds, raw 210 1.0 cup 53.8
Beans, small white, mature seeds, raw 215 1.0 cup 53.5
Peas, green, split, mature seeds, raw 197 1.0 cup 50.2
Beans, yellow, mature seeds, raw 196 1.0 cup 49.2
Beans, cranberry (roman), mature seeds, raw 195 1.0 cup 48.2
Winged beans, mature seeds, raw 182 1.0 cup 47.1
Beans, french, mature seeds, raw 184 1.0 cup 46.4
Beans, kidney, royal red, mature seeds, raw 184 1.0 cup 45.8
Beans, kidney, california red, mature seeds, raw 184 1.0 cup 45.8
Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, raw 184 1.0 cup 45.8
Lima beans, thin seeded (baby), mature seeds, raw 202 1.0 cup 41.6
Carob flour 103 1.0 cup 41
Mungo beans, mature seeds, raw 207 1.0 cup 37.9
Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, raw 150 1.0 cup 37.5
Beans, great northern, mature seeds, raw 183 1.0 cup 37
Lupins, mature seeds, raw 180 1.0 cup 34
Lima beans, large, mature seeds, raw 178 1.0 cup 33.8
Mung beans, mature seeds, raw 207 1.0 cup 33.7
Barley, hulled 184 1.0 cup 31.8
Beans, navy, mature seeds, raw 208 1.0 cup 31.8
Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened 86 1.0 cup 31.8
Barley, pearled, raw 200 1.0 cup 31.2
Chokecherries, raw, pitted (Northern Plains Indians) 154 1.0 cup 30.8
Pigeon peas (red gram), mature seeds, raw 205 1.0 cup 30.8
Beans, white, mature seeds, raw 202 1.0 cup 30.7
Rose Hips, wild (Northern Plains Indians) 127 1.0 cup 30.6
Rye flour, dark 128 1.0 cup 30.5
Soybeans, mature seeds, roasted, no salt added 172 1.0 cup 30.4
Soybeans, mature seeds, roasted, salted 172 1.0 cup 30.4
Beans, black, mature seeds, raw 194 1.0 cup 30.1
Beans, pinto, mature seeds, raw 193 1.0 cup 29.9
Beans, black turtle, mature seeds, raw 184 1.0 cup 28.5
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, raw 184 1.0 cup 28
Radishes, oriental, dried 116 1.0 cup 27.7
Beans, pink, mature seeds, raw 210 1.0 cup 26.7
Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened, processed with alkali 86 1.0 cup 25.6
Rye grain 169 1.0 cup 25.5
Mammy-apple, (mamey), raw 846 1.0 fruit without refuse 25.4
Beans, adzuki, mature seeds, raw 197 1.0 cup 25
Wheat bran, crude 58 1.0 cup 24.8
Rice bran, crude 118 1.0 cup 24.8
Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw 236 1.0 cup 24.5
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, raw 200 1.0 cup 24.4
Seeds, breadnut tree seeds, dried 160 1.0 cup 23.8
Wheat, hard red winter 192 1.0 cup 23.4
Wheat, hard white 192 1.0 cup 23.4
Wheat, hard red spring 192 1.0 cup 23.4
Pumpkin pie mix, canned 270 1.0 cup 22.4
Gums, seed gums (includes locust bean, guar) 28.35 1.0 oz 21.9
Seeds, sesame seed kernels, toasted, without salt added (decorticated) 128 1.0 cup 21.6
Seeds, sesame seed kernels, toasted, with salt added (decorticated) 128 1.0 cup 21.6
Wheat, soft white 168 1.0 cup 21.3
Wheat, soft red winter 168 1.0 cup 21
Lentils, pink or red, raw 192 1.0 cup 20.7
Wheat, KAMUT khorasan, uncooked 186 1.0 cup 20.6
Lentils, raw 192 1.0 cup 20.5
Nuts, almonds, honey roasted, unblanched 144 1.0 cup whole kernels 19.7
Fungi, Cloud ears, dried 28 1.0 cup 19.6
Beans, navy, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 182 1.0 cup 19.1
Beans, navy, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 182 1.0 cup 19.1
Triticale flour, whole-grain 130 1.0 cup 19
Spelt, uncooked 174 1.0 cup 18.6
Beans, small white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 179 1.0 cup 18.6
Beans, small white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 179 1.0 cup 18.6
Beans, yellow, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 18.4
Beans, yellow, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 18.4
Soy flour, defatted 105 1.0 cup 18.4
Yardlong beans, mature seeds, raw 167 1.0 cup 18.4
Nuts, almonds 143 1.0 cup, whole 17.9
Beans, baked, canned, with franks 259 1.0 cup 17.9
Cowpeas, catjang, mature seeds, raw 167 1.0 cup 17.9
Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), mature seeds, raw 167 1.0 cup 17.7
Bulgur, dry 140 1.0 cup 17.5
Soup, black bean, canned, condensed 257 1.0 cup (8 fl oz) 17.5
Carrot, dehydrated 74 1.0 cup 17.5
Seeds, sesame seed kernels, dried (decorticated) 150 1.0 cup 17.4
Soybeans, mature seeds, raw 186 1.0 cup 17.3
KASHI, Pilaf, 7 Whole Grain, unprepared 140 0.5 cup 17.2
Buckwheat 170 1.0 cup 17
Millet, raw 200 1.0 cup 17
Seeds, sesame seeds, whole, dried 144 1.0 cup 17
KASHI Black Bean Mango, frozen, unprepared 283 1.0 entree 17
Buckwheat groats, roasted, dry 164 1.0 cup 16.9
Beans, adzuki, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 230 1.0 cup 16.8
Beans, adzuki, mature seed, cooked, boiled, with salt 230 1.0 cup 16.8
Beans, french, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 16.6
Beans, french, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 16.6
Beans, black turtle, mature seeds, canned 240 1.0 cup 16.6
Beans, black, mature seeds, canned, low sodium 240 1.0 cup 16.6
Oats 156 1.0 cup 16.5
Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, with salt added 157 1.0 cup whole kernels 16.5
Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, lightly salted 157 1.0 cup whole kernels 16.5
Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, without salt added 157 1.0 cup whole kernels 16.5
Beans, kidney, california red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 16.5
Beans, kidney, royal red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled with salt 177 1.0 cup 16.5
Beans, kidney, royal red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 16.5
Beans, kidney, california red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 16.5
Beans, cranberry (roman), mature seeds, canned 260 1.0 cup 16.4
Pears, dried, sulfured, stewed, without added sugar 255 1.0 cup, halves 16.3
Peas, split, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 196 1.0 cup 16.3
Peas, split, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 196 1.0 cup 16.3
Pears, dried, sulfured, stewed, with added sugar 280 1.0 cup, halves 16.2
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, canned, drained solids 253 1.0 can drained 16.2
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, canned, drained, rinsed in tap water 254 1.0 can drained, rinsed 16
TACO BELL, Taco Salad 533 1.0 item 16
Restaurant, Latino, Arroz con frijoles negros (rice and black beans) 461 1.0 serving 15.7
Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 198 1.0 cup 15.6
Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 198 1.0 cup 15.6
Avocados, raw, California 230 1.0 cup, pureed 15.6
Blueberries, wild, canned, heavy syrup, drained 319 1.0 cup 15.6
Feijoa, raw 243 1.0 cup, pureed 15.6
Teff, uncooked 193 1.0 cup 15.4
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, toasted, with salt added 134 1.0 cup 15.4
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, toasted, without salt 134 1.0 cup 15.4
Meat extender 88 1.0 cup 15.4
Beans, pinto, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 171 1.0 cup 15.4
Beans, pinto, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 171 1.0 cup 15.4
Beans, black turtle, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 185 1.0 cup 15.4
Beans, black turtle, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 185 1.0 cup 15.4
Mung beans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 202 1.0 cup 15.4
Mung beans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 202 1.0 cup 15.4
Restaurant, Latino, Arroz con habichuelas colorados (Rice And Red Beans) 590 1.0 serving 15.3
Beans, pinto, canned, drained solids 277 1.0 can drained solids 15.2
Beans, cranberry (roman), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 15.2
Beans, cranberry (roman), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 15.2
Wheat germ, crude 115 1.0 cup 15.2
Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, without salt added 138 1.0 cup whole kernels 15
Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, with salt added 138 1.0 cup whole kernels 15
Beans, black, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 172 1.0 cup 15
Beans, black, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 172 1.0 cup 15
Barley flour or meal 148 1.0 cup 14.9
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, canned, drained solids 266 1.0 can drained solids 14.6
Figs, dried, uncooked 149 1.0 cup 14.6
Oat bran, raw 94 1.0 cup 14.5
Nuts, ginkgo nuts, canned 155 1.0 cup (78 kernels) 14.4
Nuts, almonds, blanched 145 1.0 cup whole kernels 14.4
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, oil roasted, with salt added 135 1.0 cup 14.3
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, oil roasted, without salt 135 1.0 cup 14.3
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, dry roasted, without salt 128 1.0 cup 14.2
Potatoes, mashed, dehydrated, granules without milk, dry form 200 1.0 cup 14.2
Soy flour, low-fat 88 1.0 cup, stirred 14.1
Lima beans, thin seeded (baby), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 182 1.0 cup 14
Lima beans, thin seeded (baby), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 182 1.0 cup 14
Beans, baked, canned, no salt added 253 1.0 cup 13.9
Beans, baked, canned, with pork 253 1.0 cup 13.9
Beans, baked, home prepared 253 1.0 cup 13.9
Peanuts, spanish, raw 146 1.0 cup 13.9
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE Bran Cereal 30 0.5 cup (1 NLEA serving) 13.9
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, canned, solids and liquid, low sodium 256 1.0 cup 13.6
Peanuts, all types, oil-roasted, with salt 144 1.0 cup, chopped 13.5
Peanuts, all types, oil-roasted, without salt 144 1.0 cup, 13.5
Pears, dried, sulfured, uncooked 180 1.0 cup, halves 13.5
Beans, navy, mature seeds, canned 262 1.0 cup 13.4
Potatoes, mashed, dehydrated, granules with milk, dry form 200 1.0 cup 13.2
Guavas, strawberry, raw 244 1.0 cup 13.2
Lima beans, large, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 188 1.0 cup 13.2
Lima beans, large, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 188 1.0 cup 13.2
Peaches, dried, sulfured, uncooked 160 1.0 cup, halves 13.1
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 13.1
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 13.1
Peanuts, spanish, oil-roasted, without salt 147 1.0 cup 13.1
Peanuts, spanish, oil-roasted, with salt 147 1.0 cup 13.1
Nuts, pistachio nuts, raw 123 1.0 cup 13
Amaranth grain, uncooked 193 1.0 cup 12.9
Avocados, raw, Florida 230 1.0 cup, pureed 12.9
Sorghum grain 192 1.0 cup 12.9
Wheat flour, whole-grain 120 1.0 cup 12.8
Beans, great northern, mature seeds, canned, low sodium 262 1.0 cup 12.8
Beans, great northern, mature seeds, canned 262 1.0 cup 12.8
Peanuts, valencia, oil-roasted, with salt 144 1.0 cup 12.8
Peanuts, valencia, oil-roasted, without salt 144 1.0 cup 12.8
Sapodilla, raw 241 1.0 cup, pulp 12.8
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG’S ALL-BRAN BRAN BUDS 30 0.333 cup (1 NLEA serving) 12.8
Peanuts, virginia, oil-roasted, without salt 143 1.0 cup 12.7
Peanuts, virginia, oil-roasted, with salt 143 1.0 cup 12.7
Peanuts, valencia, raw 146 1.0 cup 12.7
Nuts, pistachio nuts, dry roasted, with salt added 123 1.0 cup 12.7
Nuts, pistachio nuts, dry roasted, without salt added 123 1.0 cup 12.7
Beans, white, mature seeds, canned 262 1.0 cup 12.6
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 164 1.0 cup 12.5
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 164 1.0 cup 12.5
Peanuts, virginia, raw 146 1.0 cup 12.4
Beans, great northern, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 12.4
Beans, great northern, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 12.4
Plums, dried (prunes), uncooked 174 1.0 cup, pitted 12.4
Nuts, mixed nuts, dry roasted, with peanuts, with salt added 137 1.0 cup 12.3
Peanuts, all types, dry-roasted, without salt 146 1.0 cup 12.3
Corn grain, yellow 166 1.0 cup 12.1
Soup, bean with frankfurters, canned, condensed 263 1.0 cup (8 fl oz) 12.1
Restaurant, Latino, black bean soup 246 1.0 cup 12.1
Rye flour, medium 102 1.0 cup 12
Buckwheat flour, whole-groat 120 1.0 cup 12
Nuts, mixed nuts, dry roasted, with peanuts, salt added, PLANTERS pistachio blend 147 1.0 cup 11.9
Quinoa, uncooked 170 1.0 cup 11.9
Restaurant, Mexican, refried beans 148 1.0 cup 11.8
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seeds, whole, roasted, with salt added 64 1.0 cup 11.8
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seeds, whole, roasted, without salt 64 1.0 cup 11.8
Dates, deglet noor 147 1.0 cup, chopped 11.8
Nuts, chestnuts, european, raw, unpeeled 145 1.0 cup 11.7
Lima beans, large, mature seeds, canned 241 1.0 cup 11.6
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE 80 Calories, Honey Squares 30 0.75 cup (1 NLEA serving) 11.6
Pasta, gluten-free, corn, dry 105 1.0 cup 11.6
Nuts, macadamia nuts, raw 134 1.0 cup, whole or halves 11.5
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels from shell, dry roasted, with salt added 128 1.0 cup 11.5
Mungo beans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 180 1.0 cup 11.5
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, dry roasted, with salt added 128 1.0 cup 11.5
Mungo beans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 180 1.0 cup 11.5
Barley malt flour 162 1.0 cup 11.5
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOOD FRIENDS 53 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 11.5
Refried beans, canned, vegetarian 242 1.0 cup 11.4
Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 177 1.0 cup 11.3
Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 177 1.0 cup 11.3
Beans, white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 179 1.0 cup 11.3
Beans, white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 179 1.0 cup 11.3
Pigeon peas (red gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 168 1.0 cup 11.3
Pigeon peas (red gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 168 1.0 cup 11.3
Raisins, seeded 165 1.0 cup, packed 11.2
Soup, bean with ham, canned, chunky, ready-to-serve 243 1.0 cup (8 fl oz) 11.2
Cereals ready-to-eat, UNCLE SAM CEREAL 55 0.75 cup (1 NLEA serving) 11.2
Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts 115 1.0 cup, chopped 11.2
Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 171 1.0 cup 11.1
Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 171 1.0 cup 11.1
ON THE BORDER, refried beans 135 1.0 cup 11.1
Apricots, dried, sulfured, stewed, with added sugar 270 1.0 cup, halves 11.1
Beans, pinto, mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids 240 1.0 cup 11
Beans, pinto, mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids, low sodium 240 1.0 cup 11
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids 256 1.0 cup 11
Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, canned 256 1.0 cup 11
Sugar-apples, (sweetsop), raw 250 1.0 cup, pulp 11
Raspberries, frozen, red, sweetened 250 1.0 cup, thawed 11
Beans, baked, canned, with pork and sweet sauce 249 1.0 cup 11
Frijoles rojos volteados (Refried beans, red, canned) 233 1.0 cup 11
Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 170 1.0 cup 10.9
Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 170 1.0 cup 10.9
Figs, dried, stewed 259 1.0 cup 10.9
Cereals ready-to-eat, granola, homemade 122 1.0 cup 10.9
Refried beans, canned, fat-free 231 1.0 cup 10.9
APPLEBEE’S, crunchy onion rings 350 1.0 serving 10.8
Breadfruit, raw 220 1.0 cup 10.8
Soybeans, green, raw 256 1.0 cup 10.8
Cornmeal, white, self-rising, bolted, with wheat flour added, enriched 170 1.0 cup 10.7
Cornmeal, yellow, self-rising, bolted, with wheat flour added, enriched 170 1.0 cup 10.7
Beans, chili, barbecue, ranch style, cooked 253 1.0 cup 10.6
Peppers, hot chile, sun-dried 37 1.0 cup 10.6
Nuts, macadamia nuts, dry roasted, without salt added 132 1.0 cup, whole or halves 10.6
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids 240 1.0 cup 10.6
Nuts, macadamia nuts, dry roasted, with salt added 132 1.0 cup, whole or halves 10.6
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids, low sodium 240 1.0 cup 10.6
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE 80 Calories, Chocolate Squares 30 0.75 cup (1 NLEA serving) 10.6
Nuts, pecans 109 1.0 cup, chopped 10.5
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOLEAN 52 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 10.5
Nuts, pecans, oil roasted, with salt added 110 1.0 cup 10.4
Nuts, pecans, oil roasted, without salt added 110 1.0 cup 10.4
Beans, baked, canned, plain or vegetarian 254 1.0 cup 10.4
Cereals ready-to-eat, FAMILIA 122 1.0 cup 10.4
Soybeans, mature cooked, boiled, without salt 172 1.0 cup 10.3
Soybeans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 172 1.0 cup 10.3
Pasta, whole grain, 51% whole wheat, remaining enriched semolina, dry 91 1.0 cup spaghetti 10.3
Elderberries, raw 145 1.0 cup 10.2
Wasabi, root, raw 130 1.0 cup, sliced 10.1
Avocados, raw, all commercial varieties 150 1.0 cup, cubes 10
Squash, winter, hubbard, baked, without salt 205 1.0 cup, cubes 10
Squash, winter, hubbard, baked, with salt 205 1.0 cup, cubes 10
Cereals, QUAKER, Instant Oatmeal, Cinnamon Swirl, high fiber 45 1.0 packet (1 NLEA serving) 10
Candies, semisweet chocolate, made with butter 170 1.0 cup chips (6 oz package) 10
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, Nutty Clusters & Almonds 55 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 10
Formulated bar, MARS SNACKFOOD US, SNICKERS MARATHON Protein Performance Bar, Caramel Nut Rush 80 1.0 bar 10
Nuts, brazilnuts, dried, unblanched 133 1.0 cup, whole 10
Chickpea flour (besan) 92 1.0 cup 9.9
Wild rice, raw 160 1.0 cup 9.9
Bananas, dehydrated, or banana powder 100 1.0 cup 9.9
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, HONEY CLUSTERS 52 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 9.9
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, RAISIN BRAN CLUSTERS 55 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 9.8
Beans, baked, canned, with pork and tomato sauce 246 1.0 cup 9.8
Lima beans, immature seeds, frozen, baby, unprepared 164 1.0 cup 9.8
Soup, bean & ham, canned, reduced sodium, prepared with water or ready-to-serve 245 1.0 cup 9.8
Cornmeal, yellow, self-rising, degermed, enriched 138 1.0 cup 9.8
Cornmeal, white, self-rising, degermed, enriched 138 1.0 cup 9.8
Currants, zante, dried 144 1.0 cup 9.8
Seeds, chia seeds, dried 28.35 1.0 oz 9.8
Raspberries, wild (Northern Plains Indians) 130 1.0 cup 9.8
Plums, wild (Northern Plains Indians) 161 1.0 cup 9.7
Restaurant, Chinese, vegetable lo mein, without meat 741 1.0 order 9.6
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, Caramel Delight 50 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 9.6
KASHI Pizza, Tikka Masala, single serve, frozen, unprepared 159 1.0 pizza 9.5
Apricots, dried, sulfured, uncooked 130 1.0 cup, halves 9.5
Peanut flour, defatted 60 1.0 cup 9.5
Beans, kidney, red, mature seeds, canned, drained solids, rinsed in tap water 158 1.0 cup cup rinsed solids 9.5
Peanut flour, low fat 60 1.0 cup 9.5
Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, canned 256 1.0 cup 9.5
Sapote, mamey, raw 175 1.0 cup 1″ pieces 9.5
Natto 175 1.0 cup 9.5
Beans, fava, in pod, raw 126 1.0 cup 9.4
Potato flour 160 1.0 cup 9.4
Plums, dried (prunes), stewed, with added sugar 248 1.0 cup, pitted 9.4
Nuts, mixed nuts, oil roasted, with peanuts, with salt added 134 1.0 cup 9.4
Nuts, mixed nuts, oil roasted, with peanuts, without salt added 134 1.0 cup 9.4
Nuts, mixed nuts, dry roasted, with peanuts, salt added, CHOSEN ROASTER 132 1.0 cup 9.4
Restaurant, Chinese, vegetable chow mein, without meat or noodles 777 1.0 order 9.3
Frostings, chocolate, creamy, dry mix 388 1.0 package 9.3
Vegetables, mixed, canned, solids and liquids 245 1.0 cup 9.3
KELLOGG’S, EGGO, FIBERPLUS Waffles, Buttermilk 70 2.0 waffles 9.2
Durian, raw or frozen 243 1.0 cup, chopped or diced 9.2
Pasta, whole grain, 51% whole wheat, remaining unenriched semolina, dry 91 1.0 cup spaghetti 9.2
Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 170 1.0 cup 9.2
Lima beans, immature seeds, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 170 1.0 cup 9.2
Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 170 1.0 cup 9.2
MORNINGSTAR FARMS Tuscan Greens & Beans, frozen, unprepared 241 1.0 entree 9.2
Restaurant, Latino, Arroz con grandules (rice and pigeonpeas) 653 1.0 serving 9.1
Raspberries, frozen, unsweetened 140 1.0 cup, unthawed 9.1
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG’S ALL-BRAN Original 31 0.5 cup (1 NLEA serving) 9.1
Restaurant, Chinese, kung pao chicken 604 1.0 order 9.1
KELLOGG’S, EGGO, FIBERPLUS Waffles, Chocolate Chip 70 2.0 waffles 9
Squash, winter, acorn, cooked, baked, without salt 205 1.0 cup, cubes 9
Squash, winter, acorn, cooked, baked, with salt 205 1.0 cup, cubes 9
Lima beans, immature seeds, frozen, fordhook, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 170 1.0 cup 9
Lima beans, immature seeds, frozen, fordhook, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 170 1.0 cup 9
Lima beans, immature seeds, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 170 1.0 cup 9
Formulated bar, high fiber, chewy, oats and chocolate 40 1.0 bar 9
Beans, pink, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt 169 1.0 cup 9
Beans, pink, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 169 1.0 cup 9
Cereals, whole wheat hot natural cereal, dry 94 1.0 cup 8.9
Lima beans, immature seeds, canned, no salt added, solids and liquids 248 1.0 cup 8.9
OLIVE GARDEN, spaghetti with meat sauce 525 1.0 serving 8.9
Fast foods, burrito, with beans, cheese, and beef 241 1.0 burrito 8.9
TACO BELL, BURRITO SUPREME with beef 241 1.0 burrito 8.9
Guavas, common, raw 165 1.0 cup 8.9
Cornmeal, whole-grain, yellow 122 1.0 cup 8.9
Cornmeal, whole-grain, white 122 1.0 cup 8.9
Prunes, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids 234 1.0 cup 8.9
Restaurant, Italian, spaghetti with meat sauce 554 1.0 serving 8.9
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOLEAN Vanilla Graham Clusters 51 1.0 Cup (1 NLEA serving) 8.8
Refried beans, canned, traditional style (includes USDA commodity) 238 1.0 cup 8.8
Refried beans, canned, traditional, reduced sodium 238 1.0 cup 8.8
Peas, green, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 160 1.0 cup 8.8
Peas, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 160 1.0 cup 8.8
Lima beans, immature seeds, frozen, fordhook, unprepared 160 1.0 cup 8.8
KASHI Pizza, Greek Tzatziki, single serve, frozen, unprepared 149 1.0 pizza 8.8
SMART SOUP, Moroccan Chick Pea 283 10.0 oz 1 pouch 8.8
Blackberries, canned, heavy syrup, solids and liquids 256 1.0 cup 8.7
Cereals ready-to-eat, POST, Shredded Wheat n’ Bran, spoon-size 59 1.25 cup (1 NLEA serving) 8.7
Restaurant, Italian, spaghetti with pomodoro sauce (no meat) 510 1.0 serving 8.7
Couscous, dry 173 1.0 cup 8.6
Lima beans, immature seeds, frozen, baby, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 180 1.0 cup 8.6
Succotash, (corn and limas), cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 192 1.0 cup 8.6
Lima beans, immature seeds, frozen, baby, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 180 1.0 cup 8.6
Peas and carrots, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 278 1.0 package (10 oz) yields 8.6
Restaurant, Chinese, beef and vegetables 574 1.0 order 8.6
Peas, green (includes baby and lesuer types), canned, drained solids, unprepared 175 1.0 cup 8.6
Guava sauce, cooked 238 1.0 cup 8.6
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOLEAN CRISP Cinnamon Crumble 51 0.75 cup (1 NLEA serving) 8.6
Corn flour, whole-grain, white 117 1.0 cup 8.5
Corn flour, whole-grain, yellow 117 1.0 cup 8.5
Syrups, chocolate, fudge-type 304 1.0 cup 8.5
Nuts, walnuts, black, dried 125 1.0 cup, chopped 8.5
KASHI, Lemongrass Coconut Chicken, Frozen Entree 283 1.0 package 8.5
KASHI Mayan Harvest Bake, frozen, unprepared 283 1.0 entree 8.5
DENNY’S, spaghetti and meatballs 565 1.0 serving 8.5
Raspberries, canned, red, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids 256 1.0 cup 8.4
Chili with beans, canned 256 1.0 cup 8.4
Nuts, coconut meat, dried (desiccated), sweetened, flaked, packaged 85 1.0 cup 8.4
Peas and carrots, canned, no salt added, solids and liquids 255 1.0 cup 8.4
Restaurant, Chinese, shrimp and vegetables 601 1.0 order 8.4
Candies, confectioner’s coating, peanut butter 168 1.0 cup chips 8.4
Nance, frozen, unsweetened 112 1.0 cup without pits, thawed 8.4
Soup, black bean, canned, prepared with equal volume water 247 1.0 cup 8.4
Nuts, mixed nuts, dry roasted, with peanuts, without salt added 131 1.0 cup 8.4
Pasta, whole-wheat, dry 91 1.0 cup spaghetti 8.4
Beans, shellie, canned, solids and liquids 245 1.0 cup 8.3
MORNINGSTAR FARMS Pizza, Baja Black Bean, single serve, frozen, unprepared 160 1.0 pizza 8.3
CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL, spaghetti with pomodoro sauce 489 1.0 serving 8.3
Peas, green, raw 145 1.0 cup 8.3
Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 165 1.0 cup 8.2
Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 165 1.0 cup 8.2
Soy flour, full-fat, roasted 85 1.0 cup, stirred 8.2
Stew, hominy with mutton (Navajo) 411 1.0 serving 8.2
Fast foods, nachos, with cheese, beans, ground beef, and tomatoes 222 1.0 serving 8.2
TACO BELL, Nachos Supreme 222 1.0 serving 8.2
KASHI, Tuscan Veggie Bake, Frozen Entree 283 1.0 package 8.2
SMART SOUP, French Lentil 283 10.0 oz 1 pouch 8.2
Sweet potato, cooked, boiled, without skin, with salt 328 1.0 cup, mashed 8.2
Sweet potato, cooked, boiled, without skin 328 1.0 cup, mashed 8.2
Seeds, cottonseed kernels, roasted (glandless) 149 1.0 cup 8.2
Bulgur, cooked 182 1.0 cup 8.2
Cereals, oats, regular and quick, not fortified, dry 81 1.0 cup 8.2
Cornmeal, yellow, self-rising, bolted, plain, enriched 122 1.0 cup 8.2
Cornmeal, white, self-rising, bolted, plain, enriched 122 1.0 cup 8.2
Rye flour, light 102 1.0 cup 8.2
OLIVE GARDEN, spaghetti with pomodoro sauce 478 1.0 serving 8.1
CAMPBELL’S CHUNKY Soups, Hearty Bean ‘N’ Ham Soup 245 1.0 cup 8.1
Cereals ready-to-eat, POST Raisin Bran Cereal 59 1.0 cup (1 NLEA serving) 8.1
KASHI Spinach Artichoke Pasta, frozen, unprepared 269 1.0 entree 8.1
Soy flour, full-fat, raw 84 1.0 cup, stirred 8.1
CAMPBELL’S Red and White, Bean with Bacon Soup, condensed 128 1.0 serving 1/2 cup 8.1
Edamame, frozen, prepared 155 1.0 cup 8.1
Campbell’s Brown Sugar And Bacon Flavored Baked Beans 130 0.5 cup 8.1
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOLEAN CRISP Toasted Berry Crumble 51 0.75 cup (1 NLEA serving) 8.1
CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL, spaghetti with meat sauce 537 1.0 serving 8.1
KASHI Italian Vegetable Medley Pasta, frozen, unprepared 298 0.5 package 8
Burrito, beef and bean, microwaved 116 1.0 burrito cooked 8
Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, frozen, unprepared 160 1.0 cup 8
Raspberries, raw 123 1.0 cup 8
Chili con carne with beans, canned entree 242 1.0 cup 8
Sorghum flour, whole-grain 121 1.0 cup 8
Succotash, (corn and limas), canned, with cream style corn 266 1.0 cup 8
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GO LEAN CRUNCH!, Honey Almond Flax 53 0.67 Cup (1 NLEA serving) 8
Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), mature seeds, canned, plain 240 1.0 cup 7.9
Nuts, mixed nuts, oil roasted, without peanuts, with salt added 144 1.0 cup 7.9
Nuts, mixed nuts, oil roasted, without peanuts, without salt added 144 1.0 cup 7.9
Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), mature seeds, canned with pork 240 1.0 cup 7.9
KASHI Spicy Black Bean Enchilada, frozen, unprepared 255 1.0 entree 7.9
Pigeonpeas, immature seeds, raw 154 1.0 cup 7.9
Nuts, walnuts, english 117 1.0 cup, chopped 7.8
WORTHINGTON Chili, canned, unprepared 230 1.0 cup 7.8
KASHI, STEAM MEAL, Sesame Chicken, Frozen Entree 269 1.0 package 7.8
Loganberries, frozen 147 1.0 cup, unthawed 7.8
TACO BELL, Bean Burrito 185 1.0 each burrito 7.8
Fast foods, burrito, with beans and cheese 185 1.0 each burrito 7.8
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, dried 129 1.0 cup 7.7
Artichokes, (globe or french), frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 168 1.0 cup 7.7
Artichokes, (globe or french), frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 168 1.0 cup 7.7
Soup, bean with pork, canned, prepared with equal volume water 266 1.0 serving 1 cup 7.7
Plums, dried (prunes), stewed, without added sugar 248 1.0 cup, pitted 7.7
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI GOLEAN CRUNCH! 53 0.75 Cup (1 NLEA serving) 7.7
Nuts, hickorynuts, dried 120 1.0 cup 7.7
Soup, bean with pork, canned, condensed 130 0.5 cup 7.7
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, with salt added 118 1.0 cup 7.7
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, without salt 118 1.0 cup 7.7
Oranges, raw, with peel 170 1.0 cup 7.6
Lima beans, immature seeds, raw 156 1.0 cup 7.6
SMART SOUP, Greek Minestrone 283 10.0 oz 1 pouch 7.6
Blackberries, raw 144 1.0 cup 7.6
Collards, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 190 1.0 cup, chopped 7.6
Collards, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 190 1.0 cup, chopped 7.6
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG’S MINI-WHEATS, unfrosted bite size 55 30.0 biscuits (1 NLEA serving) 7.6
Bread, paratha, whole wheat, commercially prepared, frozen 79 1.0 piece 7.6
Spelt, cooked 194 1.0 cup 7.6
Soybeans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 180 1.0 cup 7.6
Soybeans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 180 1.0 cup 7.6
Blackberries, frozen, unsweetened 151 1.0 cup, unthawed 7.6
Toppings, nuts in syrup 328 1.0 cup 7.5
T.G.I. FRIDAY’S, french fries 184 1.0 serving 7.5
Cereals ready-to-eat, POST, GRAPE-NUTS Cereal 58 0.5 cup (1 NLEA serving) 7.5
Soybeans, mature seeds, dry roasted 93 1.0 cup 7.5
Apples, dried, sulfured, uncooked 86 1.0 cup 7.5
Apples, dehydrated (low moisture), sulfured, uncooked 60 1.0 cup 7.4
Cereals ready-to-eat, QUAKER, Shredded Wheat, bagged cereal 63 3.0 biscuits (1 NLEA serving) 7.4
Soursop, raw 225 1.0 cup, pulp 7.4
Cereals, KASHI GO LEAN Hot Cereal, Creamy TRULY VANILLA, dry 40 1.0 packet (1 NLEA serving) 7.4
Wheat, KAMUT khorasan, cooked 172 1.0 cup 7.4
KASHI Mushroom & Asparagus Risotto, frozen, unprepared 284 0.5 package 7.4
SMART SOUP, Indian Bean Masala 283 10.0 oz 1 pouch 7.4
KASHI, Chicken Pasta Pomodoro, Frozen Entree 283 1.0 package 7.4
Restaurant, Latino, pupusas con frijoles (pupusas, bean) 126 1.0 piece 7.3
Snacks, trail mix, regular, with chocolate chips, salted nuts and seeds 146 1.0 cup 7.3
Corn flour, masa, unenriched, white 114 1.0 cup 7.3
Corn flour, yellow, masa, enriched 114 1.0 cup 7.3
Corn flour, masa, enriched, white 114 1.0 cup 7.3
Nuts, chestnuts, european, roasted 143 1.0 cup 7.3
Rice flour, brown 158 1.0 cup 7.3
KASHI Three Cheese Penne, frozen, unprepared 269 1.0 Entrée 7.3
Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, raw 145 1.0 cup 7.2
Fast foods, burrito, with beans and beef 241 1.0 item 7.2
Nuts, coconut meat, raw 80 1.0 cup, shredded 7.2
Pumpkin, canned, with salt 245 1.0 cup 7.1
CAMPBELL’S CHUNKY Soups, Grilled Steak- Steak Chili with Beans 245 1.0 cup 7.1
Pumpkin, canned, without salt 245 1.0 cup 7.1
Chili with beans, microwavable bowls 244 1.0 cup 7.1
KASHI, Sweet and Sour Chicken, Frozen Entree 283 1.0 package 7.1
Rowal, raw 114 0.5 cup 7.1
Restaurant, Chinese, sweet and sour chicken 706 1.0 order 7.1
Teff, cooked 252 1.0 cup 7.1
Campbell’s Pork and Beans 130 0.5 cup 7
Candies, milk chocolate coated peanuts 149 1.0 cup 7
Boysenberries, frozen, unsweetened 132 1.0 cup, unthawed 7
Succotash, (corn and limas), frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 170 1.0 cup 7
Succotash, (corn and limas), frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 170 1.0 cup 7
Peaches, dried, sulfured, stewed, without added sugar 258 1.0 cup 7
Fruit juice smoothie, NAKED JUICE, BLUE MACHINE 240 8.0 fl oz 7
CRACKER BARREL, steak fries 198 1.0 serving 6.9
Artichokes, (globe or french), raw 128 1.0 artichoke, medium 6.9
Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked 299 1.0 potato large (3″ to 4-1/4″ dia. 6.9
Restaurant, Italian, lasagna with meat 457 1.0 serving 6.9
Squash, winter, hubbard, cooked, boiled, mashed, without salt 236 1.0 cup, mashed 6.8
Squash, winter, hubbard, cooked, boiled, mashed, with salt 236 1.0 cup, mashed 6.8
Artichokes, (globe or french), cooked, boiled, drained, with salt 120 1.0 artichoke, medium 6.8
Artichokes, (globe or french), cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 120 1.0 artichoke, medium 6.8
KASHI Pesto Pasta Primavera, frozen, unprepared 283 1.0 entree 6.8
Cereals ready-to-eat, KASHI 7 Whole Grain Nuggets 58 0.5 cup (1 NLEA serving) 6.8
MORNINGSTAR FARMS Mediterranean Chickpea, frozen, unprepared 67 1.0 Burger 6.8
MORNINGSTAR FARMS Roasted Garlic & Quinoa Burger, frozen, unprepared 67 1.0 burger 6.8
Oat flour, partially debranned 104 1.0 cup 6.8

REFERENCES:

Maryam S. Farvid, A. Heather Eliassen, Eunyoung Cho, Xiaomei Liao, Wendy Y. Chen, Walter C. Willett. Dietary Fiber Intake in Young Adults and Breast Cancer Risk. Pediatrics. 2016 March.

Frazier AL, Rosenberg SM. Preadolescent and adolescent risk factors for benign breast disease. J Adolesc Health. 2013 May;52(5 Suppl):S36-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.007.

Su X, Tamimi RM, Collins LC, Baer HJ, Cho E, Sampson L, Willett WC, Schnitt SJ, Connolly JL, Rosner BA, Colditz GA. Intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease. Cancer CausesControl. 2010 Jul;21(7):1033-46. doi: 10.1007/s10552-010-9532-7.

Kathleen K. Harnden, Kimberly L. Blackwell. Increased Fiber Intake Decreases Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk. Pediatrics. 2016 March.

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/nutrients/index. Accessed Feb 15, 2016.

Case Adams is a California Naturopath with a PhD in Natural Health Sciences, and Board Certified Alternative Medicine Practitioner. He has authored 26 books on natural healing strategies. “My journey into writing about alternative medicine began about 9:30 one evening after I finished with a patient at the clinic I practiced at over a decade ago. I had just spent the last two hours explaining how diet, sleep and other lifestyle choices create health problems and how changes in these, along with certain herbal medicines and other natural strategies can radically yet safely turn ones health around. As I drove home that night, I realized I needed to get this knowledge out to more people. So I began writing about health with a mission to reach those who desperately need this information. The strategies in my books and articles are backed by scientific evidence along with wisdom handed down through traditional medicines for thousands of years.”

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