Second Hand Smoke Causes Artery Thickening and Heart Disease

second hand smoke and stroke

Image World Health Organization

By Case Adams, Naturopath

New research has confirmed that second-hand smoke can significantly produce heart disease later on for children living in smoking homes.

The newest study, published in the European Heart Journal, determined that people who were exposed to second-hand smoke in their childhood homes had significantly thickened carotid arteries. The study followed 3,776 children as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study.

The researchers studied non-smoking people up to 25 years after their childhood exposures. They calculated their data from questionnaires and ultrasound testing. The ultrasound tests revealed the carotid artery thickness.

Those who were exposed to two parents who smoked in their childhood home had significantly greater inner carotid artery wall thickness. The smoking-family children had .64 millimeters greater thickness.

This greater thickness was found to be equivalent to having arteries that aged more than three years when compared to those who were not raised in a smoking family.

Effects confirmed by previous research

This study was confirmed by research from New York University. This study found second hand smoke results in significantly increased incidence of heart disease and stroke among household members who do not smoke.

The researchers reviewed studies from 14 different nations where second hand smoke had a high prevalence. In these countries – primarily low- to middle-income nations – the males in the household were the primary smokers, while the females were the non-smokers – and by default, the second-hand smokers.

The average smoking prevalence among the males was 22% to 60%, while only 0.5% to 24% of the women smoked. This left these women to suffer second hand smoke inhalation.

The research found that among these second hand smoking women, there was an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease by 17% to 136%, and an increased incidence of stroke by 41% to 49%.

The researchers found that a total of eight studies showed this correlation between heart disease and second hand smoke, while four studies showed the correlation between stroke and second hand smoke.

In another study, this one from researchers at Egypt’s National Research Center, second hand smoke was found to promote poor growth, neurological disorders and heart diseases, along with lung ailments and asthma among children of smoking families.

And new research from the National Institute on Aging has found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo-a-pyrene from cigarette smoking produce reproductive damage among the sexual organs in mice. This includes ovary damage and ovarian cancer, as well as damage to the reproductive health of the males.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, over five million deaths worldwide are caused by smoking, and of these, about 443,000 smoking-related deaths occur in the United States. Of these, nearly 50,000 deaths in the U.S. are the direct result of second-hand smoke.

According to a 1994 report from five tobacco companies (American Tobacco Company, Brown and Williamson, Liggett Group, Inc., Philip Morris Inc., R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company) cigarettes can contain the following ingredients:

Ingredients Cigarettes Can Contain

Acetanisole
Acetic acid
Acetoin
Acetophenone
6-Acetoxydihydrotheaspirane
2-Acetyl-3-Ethylpyrazine
2-Acetyl-5-Methylfuran
Acetylpyrazine
2-Acetylpyridine
3-Acetylpyridine
2-Acetylthiazole
Aconitic Acid
dl-Alanine
Alfalfa Extract
Allspice Extract, Oleoresin, and Oil
Allyl Hexanoate
Allyl Ionone
Almond Bitter Oil
Ambergris Tincture
Ammonia
Ammonium Bicarbonate
Ammonium Hydroxide
Diammonium phosphate
Ammonium sulfide
Amyl Alcohol
Amyl Butyrate
Amyl Formate
Amyl Octanoate
alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde
Amyris Oil
trans-Anethole
Angelica Root Extract, Oil and Seed Oil
Anise
Anise Star, Extract and Oils
Anisyl Acetate
Anisyl Alcohol
Anisyl Formate
Anisyl Phenylacetate
Apple Juice Concentrate, Extract, and Skins
Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate
L-Arginine
Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil
Ascorbic Acid
L-Asparagine Monohydrate
L-Aspartic Acid
Balsam Peru and Oil
Basil Oil
Bay leaf, Oil and Sweet Oil
Beeswax White
Beet Juice Concentrate
Benzaldehyde
Benzaldehyde Glyceryl Acetal
Benzoic acid, Benzoin
Benzoin Resin
Benzophenone
Benzyl Alcohol
Benzyl Benzoate
Benzyl Butyrate
Benzyl Cinnamate
Benzyl Propionate
Benzyl salicylate
Bergamot Oil
Bisabolene
Black Currant Buds Absolute
Borneol
Bornyl Acetate
Buchu Leaf Oil
1,3-Butanediol
2,3-Butanedione
1-Butanol
2-Butanone
4(2-Butenylidene)-3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-Cyclohexen-1-One
Butter, Butter Esters, and Butter Oil
Butyl acetate
Butyl butyrate
Butyl butyryl lactate
Butyl isovalerate
Butyl phenylacetate
Butyl ndecylenate
3-Butylidenephthalide
Butyric Acid
Cadinene
Caffeine
Calcium Carbonate
Camphene
Cananga Oil
Capsicum Oleoresin
Caramel color
Caraway Oil
Carbon Dioxide
Cardamom Oleoresin, Extract, Seed Oil, and Powder
Carob Bean and Extract
beta-Carotene
Carrot Oil
Carvacrol
4-Carvomenthenol
L-Carvone
beta-Caryophyllene
beta-Caryophyllene Oxide
Cascarilla Oil and Bark Extract
Cassia Bark Oil
Cassie Absolute and Oil
Castoreum Extract, Tincture and Absolute
Cedar Leaf Oil
Cedarwood Oil Terpenes and Virginiana
Cedrol
Celery Seed Extract, Solid, Oil, And Oleoresin
Cellulose Fiber
Chamomile Flower Oil And Extract
Chicory Extract
Chocolate
Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamic Acid
Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Bark Oil, and Extract
Cinnamyl Acetate
Cinnamyl Alcohol
Cinnamyl Cinnamate
Cinnamyl Isovalerate
Cinnamyl Propionate
Citral
Citric Acid
Citronella Oil
dl-Citronellol
Citronellyl Butyrate
Citronellyl Isobutyrate
Civet Absolute
Clary Oil
Clover Tops, Red Solid Extract
Cocoa
Cocoa Shells, Extract, Distillate And Powder
Coconut Oil
Coffee
Cognac White and Green Oil
Copaiba Oil
Coriander Extract and Oil
Corn Oil
Corn Silk
Costus Root Oil
Cubeb Oil
Cuminaldehyde
para-Cymene
L-Cysteine
Dandelion Root Solid Extract
Davana Oil
2-trans,4-trans-Decadienal
delta-Decalactone
gamma-Decalactone
Decanal
Decanoic acid
1-Decanol
2-Decenal
Dehydromenthofurolactone
Diethyl Malonate
Diethyl Sebacate
2,3-Diethylpyrazine
Dihydro Anethole
5,7-Dihydro-2-Methylthieno(3,4-D) Pyrimidine
Dill Seed Oil and Extract
meta-Dimethoxybenzene
para-Dimethoxybenzene
2,6-Dimethoxyphenol
Dimethyl Succinate
3,4-Dimethyl-1,2-Cyclopentanedione
3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-Cyclopentanedione
3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,6-Octatriene
4,5-Dimethyl-3-Hydroxy-2,5-Dihydrofuran-2-One
6,10-Dimethyl-5,9-Undecadien-2-One
3,7-Dimethyl-6-Octenoic Acid
2,4 Dimethylacetophenone
alpha,para-Dimethylbenzyl Alcohol
alpha,alpha-Dimethylphenethyl Acetate
alpha,alpha Dimethylphenethyl Butyrate
2,3-Dimethylpyrazine
2,5-Dimethylpyrazine
2,6-Dimethylpyrazine
Dimethyltetrahydrobenzofuranone
delta-Dodecalactone
gamma-Dodecalactone
para-Ethoxybenzaldehyde
Ethyl 10-Undecenoate
Ethyl 2-Methylbutyrate
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl acetoacetate
Ethyl alcohol
Ethyl benzoate
Ethyl butyrate
Ethyl cinnamate
Ethyl decanoate
Ethyl fenchol
Ethyl furoate
Ethyl heptanoate
Ethyl hexanoate
Ethyl isovalerate
Ethyl lactate
Ethyl laurate
Ethyl levulinate
Ethyl maltol
Ethyl methylphenylglycidate
Ethyl myristate
Ethyl nonanoate
Ethyl octadecanoate
Ethyl octanoate
Ethyl oleate
Ethyl palmitate
Ethyl phenylacetate
Ethyl propionate
Ethyl salicylate
Ethyl trans-2-butenoate
Ethyl valerate
Ethyl vanillin
2-Ethyl (or Methyl)-(3,5 and 6)-Methoxypyrazine
2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol,3-Ethyl-2-Hydroxy-2-Cyclopenten-1-One
2-Ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-Dimethylpyrazine
5-Ethyl-3-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2(5H)-Furanone
2-Ethyl-3-Methylpyrazine
3-Ethylpyridine
4-Ethylbenzaldehyde
4-Ethylguaiacol
4-Ethylphenol (para-Ethylphenol)
Eucalyptol
Farnesol
D-Fenchone
Fennel Sweet Oil
Fenugreek, Extract, Resin, and Absolute
fig Juice Concentrate
Food Starch Modified
Furfuryl Mercaptan
4-(2-Furyl)-3-Buten-2-One
Galbanum Oil
Genet Absolute
Gentian Root Extract
Geraniol
Geranium Rose Oil
Geranyl Acetate
Geranyl Butyrate
Geranyl Formate
Geranyl Isovalerate
Geranyl Phenylacetate
Ginger Oil and Oleoresin
L-Glutamic Acid
L-Glutamine
Glycerol
Glycyrrhizin Ammoniated
Grape Juice Concentrate
Guaiac Wood Oil
Guaiacol
Guar Gum
2,4-Heptadienal
gamma-Heptalactone
Heptanoic Acid
2-Heptanone
3-Hepten-2-One
2-Hepten-4-One
4-Heptenal
trans-2-Heptenal
Heptyl acetate
omega-6-Hexadecenlactone
gamma-Hexalactone
Hexanal
Hexanoic acid
2-Hexen-1-Ol
3-Hexen-1-Ol
cis-3-Hexen-1-Yl Acetate
2-Hexenal
3-Hexenoic Acid
trans-2-Hexenoic Acid
cis-3-Hexenyl Formate
Hexyl 2-Methylbutyrate
Hexyl Acetate
Hexyl Alcohol
Hexyl Phenylacetate
L-Histidine
Honey
Hops Oil
Hydrolyzed Milk Solids
Hydrolyzed Plant Proteins
5-Hydroxy-2,4-Decadienoic Acid delta- Lactone
4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-Furanone
2-Hydroxy-3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-Cyclohexen-1-One
4-Hydroxy -3-Pentenoic Acid Lactone
2-Hydroxy-4-Methylbenzaldehyde
4-Hydroxybutanoic Acid Lactone
Hydroxycitronellal
6-Hydroxydihydrotheaspirane
4-(para-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-Butanone
Hyssop Oil
Immortelle Absolute and Extract
alpha-Ionone
beta-Ionone
alpha-Irone
Isoamyl Acetate
Isoamyl Benzoate
Isoamyl Butyrate
Isoamyl Cinnamate
Isoamyl Formate, Isoamyl Hexanoate
Isoamyl Isovalerate
Isoamyl Octanoate
Isoamyl Phenylacetate
Isobornyl Acetate
Isobutyl Acetate
Isobutyl Alcohol
Isobutyl Cinnamate
Isobutyl Phenylacetate
Isobutyl Salicylate
2-Isobutyl-3-Methoxypyrazine
alpha-Isobutylphenethyl Alcohol
Isobutyraldehyde
Isobutyric Acid
d,l-Isoleucine
alpha-Isomethylionone
2-Isopropylphenol
Isovaleric Acid
Jasmine Absolute, Concrete and Oil
Kola Nut Extract
Labdanum Absolute and Oleoresin
Lactic Acid
Lauric Acid
Lauric Aldehyde
Lavandin Oil
Lavender oil
Lemon Oil and Extract
Lemongrass Oil
L-Leucine
Levulinic acid
Liquorice root, fluid, extract and powder
Lime Oil
Linalool
Linalool Oxide
Linalyl acetate
Linden Flowers
Lovage Oil And Extract
L-Lysine
Mace Powder, Extract and Oil
Magnesium Carbonate
Malic Acid
Malt and Malt Extract
Maltodextrin
Maltol
Maltyl Isobutyrate
Mandarin Oil
Maple Syrup and Concentrate
Mate Leaf, Absolute and Oil
para-Mentha-8-Thiol-3-One
Menthol
Menthone
Menthyl Acetate
dl-Methionine
Methoprene
2-Methoxy-4-Methylphenol
2-Methoxy-4-Vinylphenol
para-Methoxybenzaldehyde
1-(para-Methoxyphenyl)-1-Penten-3-One
4-(para-Methoxyphenyl)-2-Butanone
1-(para-Methoxyphenyl)-2-Propanone
Methoxypyrazine
Methyl 2-Furoate
Methyl 2-Octynoate
Methyl 2-Pyrrolyl Ketone
Methyl Anisate
Methyl anthranilate
Methyl Benzoate
Methyl Cinnamate
Methyl Dihydrojasmonate
Methyl Ester of Rosin, Partially Hydrogenated
Methyl Isovalerate
Methyl Linoleate (48%)
Methyl Linolenate (52%) Mixture
Methyl Naphthyl Ketone
Methyl Nicotinate
Methyl phenylacetate
Methyl Salicylate
Methyl Sulfide
3-Methyl-1-Cyclopentadecanone
4-Methyl-1-Phenyl-2-Pentanone
5-Methyl-2-Phenyl-2-Hexenal
5-Methyl-2-Thiophenecarboxaldehyde
6-Methyl-3,-5-Heptadien-2-One
2-Methyl-3-(para-Isopropylphenyl) Propionaldehyde
5-Methyl-3-Hexen-2-One
1-Methyl-3-Methoxy-4-Isopropylbenzene
4-Methyl-3-Pentene-2-One
2-Methyl-4-Phenylbutyraldehyde
6-Methyl-5-Hepten-2-One
4-Methyl-5-Thiazoleethanol
4-Methyl-5-Vinylthiazole
Methyl-alpha-Ionone
Methyl-trans-2-Butenoic Acid
4-Methylacetophenone
para-Methylanisole
alpha-Methylbenzyl Acetate
alpha-Methylbenzyl Alcohol
2-Methylbutyraldehyde
3-Methylbutyraldehyde
2-Methylbutyric Acid
alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde
Methylcyclopentenolone
2-Methylheptanoic Acid
2-Methylhexanoic Acid
3-Methylpentanoic Acid
4-Methylpentanoic Acid
2-Methylpyrazine
5-Methylquinoxaline
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-3-One
(Methylthio)Methylpyrazine (Mixture Of Isomers)
3-Methylthiopropionaldehyde
Methyl 3-Methylthiopropionate
2-Methylvaleric Acid
Mimosa Absolute and Extract
Molasses Extract and Tincture
Mountain Maple Solid Extract
Mullein Flowers
Myristaldehyde
Myristic acid
Myrrh Oil
beta-Napthyl Ethyl Ether
Nerol
Neroli Bigarde Oil
Nerolidol
Nona-2-trans,6-cis-dienal
2,6-Nonadien-1-ol
gamma-Nonalactone
Nonanal
Nonanoic Acid
Nonanone
trans-2-Nonen-1-ol
2-Nonenal
Nonyl Acetate
Nutmeg Powder and Oil
Oak chips extract and oil
Oakmoss absolute
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (48%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid (52%)
delta-Octalactone
gamma-Octalactone
Octanal
Octanoic acid
1-Octanol
2-Octanone
3-Octen-2-one
1-Octen-3-ol
1-Octen-3-yl acetate
2-Octenal
Octyl isobutyrate
Oleic acid
Olibanum oil
Opoponax oil and gum
Orange blossom water, absolute, and leaf absolute
Orange oil and extract
Origanum oil
Orris concrete oil and root extract
Palmarosa Oil
Palmitic acid
Parsley Seed Oil
Patchouli Oil
omega-Pentadecalactone
2,3-Pentanedione
2-Pentanone
4-Pentenoic Acid
2-Pentylpyridine
Pepper Oil, Black And White
Peppermint Oil
Peruvian (Bois De Rose) Oil
Petitgrain Absolute, Mandarin Oil and Terpeneless Oil
alpha-Phellandrene
2-Phenenthyl Acetate
Phenethyl alcohol
Phenethyl Butyrate
Phenethyl Cinnamate
Phenethyl Isobutyrate
Phenethyl Isovalerate
Phenethyl Phenylacetate
Phenethyl Salicylate
1-Phenyl-1-Propanol
3-Phenyl-1-Propanol
2-Phenyl-2-Butenal
4-Phenyl-3-Buten-2-Ol
4-Phenyl-3-Buten-2-One
Phenylacetaldehyde
Phenylacetic Acid
L-Phenylalanine
3-Phenylpropionaldehyde
3-Phenylpropionic Acid
3-Phenylpropyl Acetate
3-Phenylpropyl Cinnamate
2-(3-Phenylpropyl)Tetrahydrofuran
Phosphoric Acid
Pimenta Leaf Oil
Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oil, Scotch
Pineapple Juice Concentrate
alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene
D-Piperitone
Piperonal
Pipsissewa Leaf Extract
Plum Juice
Potassium Sorbate
L-Proline
Propenylguaethol
Propionic Acid
Propyl Acetate
Propyl para-Hydroxybenzoate
Propylene Glycol
3-Propylidenephthalide
Prune Juice and Concentrate
Pyridine
Pyroligneous Acid And Extract
Pyrrole
Pyruvic Acid
Raisin Juice Concentrate
Rhodinol
Rose Absolute and Oil
Rosemary Oil
Rum
Rum Ether
Rye Extract
Sage, Sage oil, and Sage oleoresin
Salicylaldehyde
Sandalwood oil, yellow
Sclareolide
Skatole
Smoke flavor
Snakeroot oil
Sodium acetate
Sodium benzoate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium carbonate
Sodium chloride
Sodium citrate
Sodium hydroxide
Solanone
Spearmint oil
Styrax extract, gum and oil
Sucrose octaacetate
Sugar alcohols
Sugars
Tagetes Oil
Tannic Acid
Tartaric Acid
Tea Leaf and Absolute
alpha-Terpineol
Terpinolene
Terpinyl Acetate
5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinoxaline
1,5,5,9-Tetramethyl-13-Oxatricyclo(8.3.0.0(4,9))Tridecane
2,3,4,5, and 3,4,5,6-Tetramethylethyl-Cyclohexanone
2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine
Thiamine Hydrochloride
Thiazole
L-Threonine
Thyme Oil, White and Red
Thymol
Tobacco Extracts
Tocopherols (mixed)
Tolu balsam Gum and Extract
Tolualdehydes
para-Tolyl 3-Methylbutyrate
para-Tolyl Acetaldehyde
para-Tolyl Acetate
para-Tolyl Isobutyrate
para-Tolyl Phenylacetate
Triacetin
2-Tridecanone
2-Tridecenal
Triethyl Citrate
3,5,5-Trimethyl-1-Hexanol
para,alpha,alpha-Trimethylbenzyl Alcohol
4-(2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohex-1-Enyl)But-2-En-4-One
2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohex-2-Ene-1,4-Dione
2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohexa-1,3-Dienyl Methan
4-(2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohexa-1,3-Dienyl)But-2-En-4-One
2,2,6-Trimethylcyclohexanone
2,3,5-Trimethylpyrazine
L-Tyrosine
delta-Undecalactone
gamma-Undecalactone
Undecanal
2-Undecanone
10-Undecenal
Urea
Valencene
Valeraldehyde
Valerian Root Extract, Oil and Powder
Valeric acid
gamma-Valerolactone
Valine
Vanilla Extract And Oleoresin
Vanillin
Veratraldehyde
Vetiver Oil
Vinegar
Violet Leaf Absolute
Walnut Hull Extract
Water
Wheat Extract And Flour
Wild Cherry Bark Extract
Wine and Wine Cherry
Xanthan Gum
3,4-Xylenol

Worse, as these various ingredients are burned, they produce many other chemicals. Some have estimated as many as 4,000 chemicals, which include formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ammonia and at least 43 carcinogens. Some of these may not be inhaled as deeply if the cigarette has a filter, but the second hand smoker will be exposed to these nonetheless.

The question smokers now need to ask themselves: Assuming I don’t mind polluting my own body with these chemicals, how about my family and others around me? Am I prepared to shorten their lives as well?

Learn to detox gently and safely.

REFERENCES:

Gall S, Huynh QL, Magnussen CG, Juonala M, Viikari JS, Kähönen M, Dwyer T, Raitakari OT, Venn A. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in young adults: evidence from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Eur Heart J. 2014 Mar 4.

Olasky SJ, Levy D, Moran A. Second hand smoke and cardiovascular disease in Low and Middle Income Countries: a case for action. Glob Heart. 2012 Jul 1;7(2):151-160.e5.

Al-Sayed EM, Abrahim KS. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Oct 5.

Lim J, Lawson GW, Nakamura BN, Ortiz L, Hur JA, Kavanagh TJ, Luderer U. Glutathione-deficient mice have increased sensitivity to transplacental benzpyrene-induced premature ovarian failure and ovarian tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008;57(45):1226–8

599 Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. http://www.tobacco.org/Resources/599ingredients.html

Case Adams is a California Naturopath with a PhD in Natural Health Sciences, and Board Certified Alternative Medicine Practitioner. He has authored 26 books on natural healing strategies. “My journey into writing about alternative medicine began about 9:30 one evening after I finished with a patient at the clinic I practiced at over a decade ago. I had just spent the last two hours explaining how diet, sleep and other lifestyle choices create health problems and how changes in these, along with certain herbal medicines and other natural strategies can radically yet safely turn ones health around. As I drove home that night, I realized I needed to get this knowledge out to more people. So I began writing about health with a mission to reach those who desperately need this information. The strategies in my books and articles are backed by scientific evidence along with wisdom handed down through traditional medicines for thousands of years.” Case connects with the elements by surfing, hiking and being a beach bum.

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