Second Hand Smoke Produces Heart Disease in Children

second hand smoke and stroke

Second hand smoke produces heart disease

New research has confirmed that second-hand smoke can significantly produce heart disease later on for children living in smoking homes.

Thickened arteries in children whose parents smoke

The newest study, published in the European Heart Journal, determined that people who were exposed to second-hand smoke in their childhood homes had significantly thickened carotid arteries. The study followed 3,776 children as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study.

The researchers studied non-smoking people up to 25 years after their childhood exposures. They calculated their data from questionnaires and ultrasound testing. The ultrasound tests revealed the carotid artery thickness.

Those who were exposed to two parents who smoked in their childhood home had significantly greater inner carotid artery wall thickness. The smoking-family children had .64 millimeters greater thickness.

This greater thickness was found to be equivalent to having arteries that aged more than three years when compared to those who were not raised in a smoking family.

Second hand smoke heart disease confirmed

This study was confirmed by research from New York University. This study found second hand smoke results in significantly increased incidence of heart disease and stroke among household members who do not smoke.

The researchers reviewed studies from 14 different nations where second hand smoke had a high prevalence. In these countries – primarily low- to middle-income nations – the males in the household were the primary smokers, while the females were the non-smokers – and by default, the second-hand smokers.

The average smoking prevalence among the males was 22% to 60%, while only 0.5% to 24% of the women smoked. This left these women to suffer second hand smoke inhalation.

The research found that among these second hand smoking women, there was an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease by 17% to 136%, and an increased incidence of stroke by 41% to 49%.

The researchers found that a total of eight studies showed this correlation between heart disease and second hand smoke, while four studies showed the correlation between stroke and second hand smoke.

In another study, this one from researchers at Egypt’s National Research Center, second hand smoke was found to promote poor growth, neurological disorders and heart diseases, along with lung ailments and asthma among children of smoking families.

And new research from the National Institute on Aging has found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo-a-pyrene from cigarette smoking produce reproductive damage among the sexual organs in mice. This includes ovary damage and ovarian cancer, as well as damage to the reproductive health of the males.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, over five million deaths worldwide are caused by smoking, and of these, about 443,000 smoking-related deaths occur in the United States. Of these, nearly 50,000 deaths in the U.S. are the direct result of second-hand smoke.

According to a 1994 report from five tobacco companies (American Tobacco Company, Brown and Williamson, Liggett Group, Inc., Philip Morris Inc., R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company) cigarettes can contain the following ingredients:

Ingredients Cigarettes Can Contain

1. Acetanisole
2. Acetic acid
3. Acetoin
4. Acetophenone
5. 6-Acetoxydihydrotheaspirane
6. 2-Acetyl-3-Ethylpyrazine
7. 2-Acetyl-5-Methylfuran
8. Acetylpyrazine
9. 2-Acetylpyridine
10. 3-Acetylpyridine
11. 2-Acetylthiazole
12. Aconitic Acid
13. dl-Alanine
14. Alfalfa Extract
15. Allspice Extract, Oleoresin, and Oil
16. Allyl Hexanoate
17. Allyl Ionone
18. Almond Bitter Oil
19. Ambergris Tincture
20. Ammonia
21. Ammonium Bicarbonate
22. Ammonium Hydroxide
23. Diammonium phosphate
24. Ammonium sulfide
25. Amyl Alcohol
26. Amyl Butyrate
27. Amyl Formate
28. Amyl Octanoate
29. alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde
30. Amyris Oil
31. trans-Anethole
32. Angelica Root Extract, Oil and Seed Oil
33. Anise
34. Anise Star, Extract and Oils
35. Anisyl Acetate
36. Anisyl Alcohol
37. Anisyl Formate
38. Anisyl Phenylacetate
39. Apple Juice Concentrate, Extract, and Skins
40. Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate
41. L-Arginine
42. Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil
43. Ascorbic Acid
44. L-Asparagine Monohydrate
45. L-Aspartic Acid
46. Balsam Peru and Oil
47. Basil Oil
48. Bay leaf, Oil and Sweet Oil
49. Beeswax White
50. Beet Juice Concentrate
51. Benzaldehyde
52. Benzaldehyde Glyceryl Acetal
53. Benzoic acid, Benzoin
54. Benzoin Resin
55. Benzophenone
56. Benzyl Alcohol
57. Benzyl Benzoate
58. Benzyl Butyrate
59. Benzyl Cinnamate
60. Benzyl Propionate
61. Benzyl salicylate
62. Bergamot Oil
63. Bisabolene
64. Black Currant Buds Absolute
65. Borneol
66. Bornyl Acetate
67. Buchu Leaf Oil
68. 1,3-Butanediol
69. 2,3-Butanedione
70. 1-Butanol
71. 2-Butanone
72. 4(2-Butenylidene)-3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-Cyclohexen-1-One
73. Butter, Butter Esters, and Butter Oil
74. Butyl acetate
75. Butyl butyrate
76. Butyl butyryl lactate
77. Butyl isovalerate
78. Butyl phenylacetate
79. Butyl ndecylenate
80. 3-Butylidenephthalide
81. Butyric Acid
82. Cadinene
83. Caffeine
84. Calcium Carbonate
85. Camphene
86. Cananga Oil
87. Capsicum Oleoresin
88. Caramel color
89. Caraway Oil
90. Carbon Dioxide
91. Cardamom Oleoresin, Extract, Seed Oil, and Powder
92. Carob Bean and Extract
93. beta-Carotene
94. Carrot Oil
95. Carvacrol
96. 4-Carvomenthenol
97. L-Carvone
98. beta-Caryophyllene
99. beta-Caryophyllene Oxide
100. Cascarilla Oil and Bark Extract
101. Cassia Bark Oil
102. Cassie Absolute and Oil
103. Castoreum Extract, Tincture and Absolute
104. Cedar Leaf Oil
105. Cedarwood Oil Terpenes and Virginiana
106. Cedrol
107. Celery Seed Extract, Solid, Oil, And Oleoresin
108. Cellulose Fiber
109. Chamomile Flower Oil And Extract
110. Chicory Extract
111. Chocolate
112. Cinnamaldehyde
113. Cinnamic Acid
114. Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Bark Oil, and Extract
115. Cinnamyl Acetate
116. Cinnamyl Alcohol
117. Cinnamyl Cinnamate
118. Cinnamyl Isovalerate
119. Cinnamyl Propionate
120. Citral
121. Citric Acid
122. Citronella Oil
123. dl-Citronellol
124. Citronellyl Butyrate
125. Citronellyl Isobutyrate
126. Civet Absolute
127. Clary Oil
128. Clover Tops, Red Solid Extract
129. Cocoa
130. Cocoa Shells, Extract, Distillate And Powder
131. Coconut Oil
132. Coffee
133. Cognac White and Green Oil
134. Copaiba Oil
135. Coriander Extract and Oil
136. Corn Oil
137. Corn Silk
138. Costus Root Oil
139. Cubeb Oil
140. Cuminaldehyde
141. para-Cymene
142. L-Cysteine
143. Dandelion Root Solid Extract
144. Davana Oil
145. 2-trans,4-trans-Decadienal
146. delta-Decalactone
147. gamma-Decalactone
148. Decanal
149. Decanoic acid
150. 1-Decanol
151. 2-Decenal
152. Dehydromenthofurolactone
153. Diethyl Malonate
154. Diethyl Sebacate
155. 2,3-Diethylpyrazine
156. Dihydro Anethole
157. 5,7-Dihydro-2-Methylthieno(3,4-D) Pyrimidine
158. Dill Seed Oil and Extract
159. meta-Dimethoxybenzene
160. para-Dimethoxybenzene
161. 2,6-Dimethoxyphenol
162. Dimethyl Succinate
163. 3,4-Dimethyl-1,2-Cyclopentanedione
164. 3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-Cyclopentanedione
165. 3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,6-Octatriene
166. 4,5-Dimethyl-3-Hydroxy-2,5-Dihydrofuran-2-One
167. 6,10-Dimethyl-5,9-Undecadien-2-One
168. 3,7-Dimethyl-6-Octenoic Acid
169. 2,4 Dimethylacetophenone
170. alpha,para-Dimethylbenzyl Alcohol
171. alpha,alpha-Dimethylphenethyl Acetate
172. alpha,alpha Dimethylphenethyl Butyrate
173. 2,3-Dimethylpyrazine
174. 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine
175. 2,6-Dimethylpyrazine
176. Dimethyltetrahydrobenzofuranone
177. delta-Dodecalactone
178. gamma-Dodecalactone
179. para-Ethoxybenzaldehyde
180. Ethyl 10-Undecenoate
181. Ethyl 2-Methylbutyrate
182. Ethyl acetate
183. Ethyl acetoacetate
184. Ethyl alcohol
185. Ethyl benzoate
186. Ethyl butyrate
187. Ethyl cinnamate
188. Ethyl decanoate
189. Ethyl fenchol
190. Ethyl furoate
191. Ethyl heptanoate
192. Ethyl hexanoate
193. Ethyl isovalerate
194. Ethyl lactate
195. Ethyl laurate
196. Ethyl levulinate
197. Ethyl maltol
198. Ethyl methylphenylglycidate
199. Ethyl myristate
200. Ethyl nonanoate
201. Ethyl octadecanoate
202. Ethyl octanoate
203. Ethyl oleate
204. Ethyl palmitate
205. Ethyl phenylacetate
206. Ethyl propionate
207. Ethyl salicylate
208. Ethyl trans-2-butenoate
209. Ethyl valerate
210. Ethyl vanillin
211. 2-Ethyl (or Methyl)-(3,5 and 6)-Methoxypyrazine
212. 2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol,3-Ethyl-2-Hydroxy-2-Cyclopenten-1-One
213. 2-Ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-Dimethylpyrazine
214. 5-Ethyl-3-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2(5H)-Furanone
215. 2-Ethyl-3-Methylpyrazine
216. 3-Ethylpyridine
217. 4-Ethylbenzaldehyde
218. 4-Ethylguaiacol
219. 4-Ethylphenol (para-Ethylphenol)
220. Eucalyptol
221. Farnesol
222. D-Fenchone
223. Fennel Sweet Oil
224. Fenugreek, Extract, Resin, and Absolute
225. fig Juice Concentrate
226. Food Starch Modified
227. Furfuryl Mercaptan
228. 4-(2-Furyl)-3-Buten-2-One
229. Galbanum Oil
230. Genet Absolute
231. Gentian Root Extract
232. Geraniol
233. Geranium Rose Oil
234. Geranyl Acetate
235. Geranyl Butyrate
236. Geranyl Formate
237. Geranyl Isovalerate
238. Geranyl Phenylacetate
239. Ginger Oil and Oleoresin
240. L-Glutamic Acid
241. L-Glutamine
242. Glycerol
243. Glycyrrhizin Ammoniated
244. Grape Juice Concentrate
245. Guaiac Wood Oil
246. Guaiacol
247. Guar Gum
248. 2,4-Heptadienal
249. gamma-Heptalactone
250. Heptanoic Acid
251. 2-Heptanone
252. 3-Hepten-2-One
253. 2-Hepten-4-One
254. 4-Heptenal
255. trans-2-Heptenal
256. Heptyl acetate
257. omega-6-Hexadecenlactone
258. gamma-Hexalactone
259. Hexanal
260. Hexanoic acid
261. 2-Hexen-1-Ol
262. 3-Hexen-1-Ol
263. cis-3-Hexen-1-Yl Acetate
264. 2-Hexenal
265. 3-Hexenoic Acid
266. trans-2-Hexenoic Acid
267. cis-3-Hexenyl Formate
268. Hexyl 2-Methylbutyrate
269. Hexyl Acetate
270. Hexyl Alcohol
271. Hexyl Phenylacetate
272. L-Histidine
273. Honey
274. Hops Oil
275. Hydrolyzed Milk Solids
276. Hydrolyzed Plant Proteins
277. 5-Hydroxy-2,4-Decadienoic Acid delta- Lactone
278. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-Furanone
279. 2-Hydroxy-3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-Cyclohexen-1-One
280. 4-Hydroxy -3-Pentenoic Acid Lactone
281. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methylbenzaldehyde
282. 4-Hydroxybutanoic Acid Lactone
283. Hydroxycitronellal
284. 6-Hydroxydihydrotheaspirane
285. 4-(para-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-Butanone
286. Hyssop Oil
287. Immortelle Absolute and Extract
288. alpha-Ionone
289. beta-Ionone
290. alpha-Irone
291. Isoamyl Acetate
292. Isoamyl Benzoate
293. Isoamyl Butyrate
294. Isoamyl Cinnamate
295. Isoamyl Formate, Isoamyl Hexanoate
296. Isoamyl Isovalerate
297. Isoamyl Octanoate
298. Isoamyl Phenylacetate
299. Isobornyl Acetate
300. Isobutyl Acetate
301. Isobutyl Alcohol
302. Isobutyl Cinnamate
303. Isobutyl Phenylacetate
304. Isobutyl Salicylate
305. 2-Isobutyl-3-Methoxypyrazine
306. alpha-Isobutylphenethyl Alcohol
307. Isobutyraldehyde
308. Isobutyric Acid
309. d,l-Isoleucine
310. alpha-Isomethylionone
311. 2-Isopropylphenol
312. Isovaleric Acid
313. Jasmine Absolute, Concrete and Oil
314. Kola Nut Extract
315. Labdanum Absolute and Oleoresin
316. Lactic Acid
317. Lauric Acid
318. Lauric Aldehyde
319. Lavandin Oil
320. Lavender oil
321. Lemon Oil and Extract
322. Lemongrass Oil
323. L-Leucine
324. Levulinic acid
325. Liquorice root, fluid, extract and powder
326. Lime Oil
327. Linalool
328. Linalool Oxide
329. Linalyl acetate
330. Linden Flowers
331. Lovage Oil And Extract
332. L-Lysine
333. Mace Powder, Extract and Oil
334. Magnesium Carbonate
335. Malic Acid
336. Malt and Malt Extract
337. Maltodextrin
338. Maltol
339. Maltyl Isobutyrate
340. Mandarin Oil
341. Maple Syrup and Concentrate
342. Mate Leaf, Absolute and Oil
343. para-Mentha-8-Thiol-3-One
344. Menthol
345. Menthone
346. Menthyl Acetate
347. dl-Methionine
348. Methoprene
349. 2-Methoxy-4-Methylphenol
350. 2-Methoxy-4-Vinylphenol
351. para-Methoxybenzaldehyde
352. 1-(para-Methoxyphenyl)-1-Penten-3-One
353. 4-(para-Methoxyphenyl)-2-Butanone
354. 1-(para-Methoxyphenyl)-2-Propanone
355. Methoxypyrazine
356. Methyl 2-Furoate
357. Methyl 2-Octynoate
358. Methyl 2-Pyrrolyl Ketone
359. Methyl Anisate
360. Methyl anthranilate
361. Methyl Benzoate
362. Methyl Cinnamate
363. Methyl Dihydrojasmonate
364. Methyl Ester of Rosin, Partially Hydrogenated
365. Methyl Isovalerate
366. Methyl Linoleate (48%)
367. Methyl Linolenate (52%) Mixture
368. Methyl Naphthyl Ketone
369. Methyl Nicotinate
370. Methyl phenylacetate
371. Methyl Salicylate
372. Methyl Sulfide
373. 3-Methyl-1-Cyclopentadecanone
374. 4-Methyl-1-Phenyl-2-Pentanone
375. 5-Methyl-2-Phenyl-2-Hexenal
376. 5-Methyl-2-Thiophenecarboxaldehyde
377. 6-Methyl-3,-5-Heptadien-2-One
378. 2-Methyl-3-(para-Isopropylphenyl) Propionaldehyde
379. 5-Methyl-3-Hexen-2-One
380. 1-Methyl-3-Methoxy-4-Isopropylbenzene
381. 4-Methyl-3-Pentene-2-One
382. 2-Methyl-4-Phenylbutyraldehyde
383. 6-Methyl-5-Hepten-2-One
384. 4-Methyl-5-Thiazoleethanol
385. 4-Methyl-5-Vinylthiazole
386. Methyl-alpha-Ionone
387. Methyl-trans-2-Butenoic Acid
388. 4-Methylacetophenone
389. para-Methylanisole
390. alpha-Methylbenzyl Acetate
391. alpha-Methylbenzyl Alcohol
392. 2-Methylbutyraldehyde
393. 3-Methylbutyraldehyde
394. 2-Methylbutyric Acid
395. alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde
396. Methylcyclopentenolone
397. 2-Methylheptanoic Acid
398. 2-Methylhexanoic Acid
399. 3-Methylpentanoic Acid
400. 4-Methylpentanoic Acid
401. 2-Methylpyrazine
402. 5-Methylquinoxaline
403. 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-3-One
404. (Methylthio)Methylpyrazine (Mixture Of Isomers)
405. 3-Methylthiopropionaldehyde
406. Methyl 3-Methylthiopropionate
407. 2-Methylvaleric Acid
408. Mimosa Absolute and Extract
409. Molasses Extract and Tincture
410. Mountain Maple Solid Extract
411. Mullein Flowers
412. Myristaldehyde
413. Myristic acid
414. Myrrh Oil
415. beta-Napthyl Ethyl Ether
416. Nerol
417. Neroli Bigarde Oil
418. Nerolidol
419. Nona-2-trans,6-cis-dienal
420. 2,6-Nonadien-1-ol
421. gamma-Nonalactone
422. Nonanal
423. Nonanoic Acid
424. Nonanone
425. trans-2-Nonen-1-ol
426. 2-Nonenal
427. Nonyl Acetate
428. Nutmeg Powder and Oil
429. Oak chips extract and oil
430. Oakmoss absolute
431. 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (48%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid (52%)
432. delta-Octalactone
433. gamma-Octalactone
434. Octanal
435. Octanoic acid
436. 1-Octanol
437. 2-Octanone
438. 3-Octen-2-one
439. 1-Octen-3-ol
440. 1-Octen-3-yl acetate
441. 2-Octenal
442. Octyl isobutyrate
443. Oleic acid
444. Olibanum oil
445. Opoponax oil and gum
446. Orange blossom water, absolute, and leaf absolute
447. Orange oil and extract
448. Origanum oil
449. Orris concrete oil and root extract
450. Palmarosa Oil
451. Palmitic acid
452. Parsley Seed Oil
453. Patchouli Oil
454. omega-Pentadecalactone
455. 2,3-Pentanedione
456. 2-Pentanone
457. 4-Pentenoic Acid
458. 2-Pentylpyridine
459. Pepper Oil, Black And White
460. Peppermint Oil
461. Peruvian (Bois De Rose) Oil
462. Petitgrain Absolute, Mandarin Oil and Terpeneless Oil
463. alpha-Phellandrene
464. 2-Phenenthyl Acetate
465. Phenethyl alcohol
466. Phenethyl Butyrate
467. Phenethyl Cinnamate
468. Phenethyl Isobutyrate
469. Phenethyl Isovalerate
470. Phenethyl Phenylacetate
471. Phenethyl Salicylate
472. 1-Phenyl-1-Propanol
473. 3-Phenyl-1-Propanol
474. 2-Phenyl-2-Butenal
475. 4-Phenyl-3-Buten-2-Ol
476. 4-Phenyl-3-Buten-2-One
477. Phenylacetaldehyde
478. Phenylacetic Acid
479. L-Phenylalanine
480. 3-Phenylpropionaldehyde
481. 3-Phenylpropionic Acid
482. 3-Phenylpropyl Acetate
483. 3-Phenylpropyl Cinnamate
484. 2-(3-Phenylpropyl)Tetrahydrofuran
485. Phosphoric Acid
486. Pimenta Leaf Oil
487. Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oil, Scotch
488. Pineapple Juice Concentrate
489. alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene
490. D-Piperitone
491. Piperonal
492. Pipsissewa Leaf Extract
493. Plum Juice
494. Potassium Sorbate
495. L-Proline
496. Propenylguaethol
497. Propionic Acid
498. Propyl Acetate
499. Propyl para-Hydroxybenzoate
500. Propylene Glycol
501. 3-Propylidenephthalide
502. Prune Juice and Concentrate
503. Pyridine
504. Pyroligneous Acid And Extract
505. Pyrrole
506. Pyruvic Acid
507. Raisin Juice Concentrate
508. Rhodinol
509. Rose Absolute and Oil
510. Rosemary Oil
511. Rum
512. Rum Ether
513. Rye Extract
514. Sage, Sage oil, and Sage oleoresin
515. Salicylaldehyde
516. Sandalwood oil, yellow
517. Sclareolide
518. Skatole
519. Smoke flavor
520. Snakeroot oil
521. Sodium acetate
522. Sodium benzoate
523. Sodium bicarbonate
524. Sodium carbonate
525. Sodium chloride
526. Sodium citrate
527. Sodium hydroxide
528. Solanone
529. Spearmint oil
530. Styrax extract, gum and oil
531. Sucrose octaacetate
532. Sugar alcohols
533. Sugars
534. Tagetes Oil
535. Tannic Acid
536. Tartaric Acid
537. Tea Leaf and Absolute
538. alpha-Terpineol
539. Terpinolene
540. Terpinyl Acetate
541. 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinoxaline
542. 1,5,5,9-Tetramethyl-13-Oxatricyclo(8.3.0.0(4,9))Tridecane
543. 2,3,4,5, and 3,4,5,6-Tetramethylethyl-Cyclohexanone
544. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine
545. Thiamine Hydrochloride
546. Thiazole
547. L-Threonine
548. Thyme Oil, White and Red
549. Thymol
550. Tobacco Extracts
551. Tocopherols (mixed)
552. Tolu balsam Gum and Extract
553. Tolualdehydes
554. para-Tolyl 3-Methylbutyrate
555. para-Tolyl Acetaldehyde
556. para-Tolyl Acetate
557. para-Tolyl Isobutyrate
558. para-Tolyl Phenylacetate
559. Triacetin
560. 2-Tridecanone
561. 2-Tridecenal
562. Triethyl Citrate
563. 3,5,5-Trimethyl-1-Hexanol
564. para,alpha,alpha-Trimethylbenzyl Alcohol
565. 4-(2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohex-1-Enyl)But-2-En-4-One
566. 2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohex-2-Ene-1,4-Dione
567. 2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohexa-1,3-Dienyl Methan
568. 4-(2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohexa-1,3-Dienyl)But-2-En-4-One
569. 2,2,6-Trimethylcyclohexanone
570. 2,3,5-Trimethylpyrazine
571. L-Tyrosine
572. delta-Undecalactone
573. gamma-Undecalactone
574. Undecanal
575. 2-Undecanone
576. 10-Undecenal
577. Urea
578. Valencene
579. Valeraldehyde
580. Valerian Root Extract, Oil and Powder
581. Valeric acid
582. gamma-Valerolactone
583. Valine
584. Vanilla Extract And Oleoresin
585. Vanillin
586. Veratraldehyde
587. Vetiver Oil
588. Vinegar
589. Violet Leaf Absolute
590. Walnut Hull Extract
591. Water
592. Wheat Extract And Flour
593. Wild Cherry Bark Extract
594. Wine and Wine Cherry
595. Xanthan Gum
596. 3,4-Xylenol

Read more:  Fiber Reduces Effects of Second Hand Smoke

Worse, as these various ingredients are burned, they produce many other chemicals. Some have estimated as many as 4,000 chemicals, which include formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ammonia and at least 43 carcinogens. Some of these may not be inhaled as deeply if the cigarette has a filter, but the second hand smoker will be exposed to these nonetheless.

The question smokers now need to ask themselves: Assuming I don’t mind polluting my own body with these chemicals, how about my family and others around me? Am I prepared to shorten their lives as well?

The Living Cleanse by Case Adams Naturopath

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REFERENCES:

Gall S, Huynh QL, Magnussen CG, Juonala M, Viikari JS, Kähönen M, Dwyer T, Raitakari OT, Venn A. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in young adults: evidence from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Eur Heart J. 2014 Mar 4.

Olasky SJ, Levy D, Moran A. Second hand smoke and cardiovascular disease in Low and Middle Income Countries: a case for action. Glob Heart. 2012 Jul 1;7(2):151-160.e5.

Al-Sayed EM, Abrahim KS. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Oct 5.

Lim J, Lawson GW, Nakamura BN, Ortiz L, Hur JA, Kavanagh TJ, Luderer U. Glutathione-deficient mice have increased sensitivity to transplacental benzpyrene-induced premature ovarian failure and ovarian tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008;57(45):1226–8

Read more:  Youth Smoking Called An Epidemic

599 Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. http://www.tobacco.org/Resources/599ingredients.html

Case Adams is a California Naturopath and a Board Certified Alternative Medicine Practitioner with a PhD in Natural Health Sciences, and diplomas in Homeopathy, Aromatherapy, Bach Flower Remedies, Blood Chemistry, Clinical Nutritional Counseling and Colon Hydrotherapy. He has authored 26 books on natural healing strategies.

Case Adams, Naturopath

Case Adams is a California Naturopath and a Board Certified Alternative Medicine Practitioner with a PhD in Natural Health Sciences, and diplomas in Homeopathy, Aromatherapy, Bach Flower Remedies, Blood Chemistry, Clinical Nutritional Counseling and Colon Hydrotherapy. He has authored 26 books on natural healing strategies.

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