Second Hand Smoke Causes Artery Thickening and Heart Disease
New research has confirmed that second-hand smoke can significantly produce heart disease later on for children living in smoking homes.
The newest study, published in the European Heart Journal, determined that people who were exposed to second-hand smoke in their childhood homes had significantly thickened carotid arteries. The study followed 3,776 children as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study.
The researchers studied non-smoking people up to 25 years after their childhood exposures. They calculated their data from questionnaires and ultrasound testing. The ultrasound tests revealed the carotid artery thickness.
Those who were exposed to two parents who smoked in their childhood home had significantly greater inner carotid artery wall thickness. The smoking-family children had .64 millimeters greater thickness.
This greater thickness was found to be equivalent to having arteries that aged more than three years when compared to those who were not raised in a smoking family.
Effects confirmed by previous research
This study was confirmed by research from New York University. This study found second hand smoke results in significantly increased incidence of heart disease and stroke among household members who do not smoke.
The researchers reviewed studies from 14 different nations where second hand smoke had a high prevalence. In these countries – primarily low- to middle-income nations – the males in the household were the primary smokers, while the females were the non-smokers – and by default, the second-hand smokers.
The average smoking prevalence among the males was 22% to 60%, while only 0.5% to 24% of the women smoked. This left these women to suffer second hand smoke inhalation.
The research found that among these second hand smoking women, there was an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease by 17% to 136%, and an increased incidence of stroke by 41% to 49%.
The researchers found that a total of eight studies showed this correlation between heart disease and second hand smoke, while four studies showed the correlation between stroke and second hand smoke.
In another study, this one from researchers at Egypt’s National Research Center, second hand smoke was found to promote poor growth, neurological disorders and heart diseases, along with lung ailments and asthma among children of smoking families.
And new research from the National Institute on Aging has found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo-a-pyrene from cigarette smoking produce reproductive damage among the sexual organs in mice. This includes ovary damage and ovarian cancer, as well as damage to the reproductive health of the males.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, over five million deaths worldwide are caused by smoking, and of these, about 443,000 smoking-related deaths occur in the United States. Of these, nearly 50,000 deaths in the U.S. are the direct result of second-hand smoke.
According to a 1994 report from five tobacco companies (American Tobacco Company, Brown and Williamson, Liggett Group, Inc., Philip Morris Inc., R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company) cigarettes can contain the following ingredients:
Ingredients Cigarettes Can Contain
Allspice Extract, Oleoresin, and Oil
Almond Bitter Oil
Angelica Root Extract, Oil and Seed Oil
Anise Star, Extract and Oils
Apple Juice Concentrate, Extract, and Skins
Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate
Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil
Balsam Peru and Oil
Bay leaf, Oil and Sweet Oil
Beet Juice Concentrate
Benzaldehyde Glyceryl Acetal
Benzoic acid, Benzoin
Black Currant Buds Absolute
Buchu Leaf Oil
Butter, Butter Esters, and Butter Oil
Butyl butyryl lactate
Cardamom Oleoresin, Extract, Seed Oil, and Powder
Carob Bean and Extract
Cascarilla Oil and Bark Extract
Cassia Bark Oil
Cassie Absolute and Oil
Castoreum Extract, Tincture and Absolute
Cedar Leaf Oil
Cedarwood Oil Terpenes and Virginiana
Celery Seed Extract, Solid, Oil, And Oleoresin
Chamomile Flower Oil And Extract
Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Bark Oil, and Extract
Clover Tops, Red Solid Extract
Cocoa Shells, Extract, Distillate And Powder
Cognac White and Green Oil
Coriander Extract and Oil
Costus Root Oil
Dandelion Root Solid Extract
Dill Seed Oil and Extract
alpha,alpha Dimethylphenethyl Butyrate
2-Ethyl (or Methyl)-(3,5 and 6)-Methoxypyrazine
2-Ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-Dimethylpyrazine
Fennel Sweet Oil
Fenugreek, Extract, Resin, and Absolute
fig Juice Concentrate
Food Starch Modified
Gentian Root Extract
Geranium Rose Oil
Ginger Oil and Oleoresin
Grape Juice Concentrate
Guaiac Wood Oil
Hydrolyzed Milk Solids
Hydrolyzed Plant Proteins
5-Hydroxy-2,4-Decadienoic Acid delta- Lactone
4-Hydroxy -3-Pentenoic Acid Lactone
4-Hydroxybutanoic Acid Lactone
Immortelle Absolute and Extract
Isoamyl Formate, Isoamyl Hexanoate
Jasmine Absolute, Concrete and Oil
Kola Nut Extract
Labdanum Absolute and Oleoresin
Lemon Oil and Extract
Liquorice root, fluid, extract and powder
Lovage Oil And Extract
Mace Powder, Extract and Oil
Malt and Malt Extract
Maple Syrup and Concentrate
Mate Leaf, Absolute and Oil
Methyl 2-Pyrrolyl Ketone
Methyl Ester of Rosin, Partially Hydrogenated
Methyl Linoleate (48%)
Methyl Linolenate (52%) Mixture
Methyl Naphthyl Ketone
(Methylthio)Methylpyrazine (Mixture Of Isomers)
Mimosa Absolute and Extract
Molasses Extract and Tincture
Mountain Maple Solid Extract
beta-Napthyl Ethyl Ether
Neroli Bigarde Oil
Nutmeg Powder and Oil
Oak chips extract and oil
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (48%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid (52%)
Opoponax oil and gum
Orange blossom water, absolute, and leaf absolute
Orange oil and extract
Orris concrete oil and root extract
Parsley Seed Oil
Pepper Oil, Black And White
Peruvian (Bois De Rose) Oil
Petitgrain Absolute, Mandarin Oil and Terpeneless Oil
Pimenta Leaf Oil
Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oil, Scotch
Pineapple Juice Concentrate
Pipsissewa Leaf Extract
Prune Juice and Concentrate
Pyroligneous Acid And Extract
Raisin Juice Concentrate
Rose Absolute and Oil
Sage, Sage oil, and Sage oleoresin
Sandalwood oil, yellow
Styrax extract, gum and oil
Tea Leaf and Absolute
2,3,4,5, and 3,4,5,6-Tetramethylethyl-Cyclohexanone
Thyme Oil, White and Red
Tolu balsam Gum and Extract
Valerian Root Extract, Oil and Powder
Vanilla Extract And Oleoresin
Violet Leaf Absolute
Walnut Hull Extract
Wheat Extract And Flour
Wild Cherry Bark Extract
Wine and Wine Cherry
Worse, as these various ingredients are burned, they produce many other chemicals. Some have estimated as many as 4,000 chemicals, which include formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ammonia and at least 43 carcinogens. Some of these may not be inhaled as deeply if the cigarette has a filter, but the second hand smoker will be exposed to these nonetheless.
The question smokers now need to ask themselves: Assuming I don’t mind polluting my own body with these chemicals, how about my family and others around me? Am I prepared to shorten their lives as well?
Learn to detox gently and safely.
Gall S, Huynh QL, Magnussen CG, Juonala M, Viikari JS, Kähönen M, Dwyer T, Raitakari OT, Venn A. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in young adults: evidence from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study and the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Eur Heart J. 2014 Mar 4.
Olasky SJ, Levy D, Moran A. Second hand smoke and cardiovascular disease in Low and Middle Income Countries: a case for action. Glob Heart. 2012 Jul 1;7(2):151-160.e5.
Al-Sayed EM, Abrahim KS. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Oct 5.
Lim J, Lawson GW, Nakamura BN, Ortiz L, Hur JA, Kavanagh TJ, Luderer U. Glutathione-deficient mice have increased sensitivity to transplacental benzpyrene-induced premature ovarian failure and ovarian tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 7.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008;57(45):1226–8
599 Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. http://www.tobacco.org/Resources/599ingredients.html